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Kalk NJ, Nutt DJ, Lingford-Hughes AR. The role of central noradrenergic dysregulation in anxiety disorders: evidence from clinical studies. journal Psychopharmacol 2011;25(1):3-16. doi:10.1177/0269881110367448.
The nature of the noradrenergic dysregulation in clinical anxiety disorders remains unclear. In panic disorder, the predominant view has been that central noradrenergic neuronal networks and/or the sympathetic nervous system was normal in patients at rest, but hyper-reactive to specific stimuli, for example carbon dioxide. These ideas have been extended to other anxiety disorders, which share with panic disorder characteristic subjective anxiety and physiological symptoms of excess sympathetic activity....
Corrigan FM, Fisher JJ, Nutt DJ. Autonomic dysregulation and the Window of Tolerance model of the effects of complex emotional trauma. journal Psychopharmacol 2011;25(1):17-25. doi:10.1177/0269881109354930.
This paper reviews the Window of Tolerance model of the long-term effects of the severe emotional trauma associated with childhood abuse, a model which can also be applied to adult trauma of sufficient severity to cause post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic dysthymic disorders and chronic anxiety disorders. Dysfunctional behaviours such as deliberate self-harm and substance abuse are seen as efforts to regulate an autonomic nervous system which is readily triggered into extreme states by reminders of the...
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