Due to the potential for concomitant psychiatric illness and substance use disorders, understanding the potential interactions between psychotropics and drugs of abuse is important.

Essential Questions and References

What are the potential drug-drug interactions between illicit agents and medications?

  1. Dean A. Illicit drugs and drug interactions. Australian Pharmacist. 2006;25(9):684-9. [Weblink]
  2. Power point presentation “Possible Drug Interactions for Students on Multiple Medications” by Sally Guthrie, Pharm.D, BCPP [Weblink]
  3. Lindsey WT, Stewart D, Childress D. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Am J Drug Alcohol Abus. 7th ed. 2012;38(4):334-43. DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2011.643997. PubMed PMID: 22221229.

How does cigarette smoking (polycyclic hydrocarbons) affect medications?

  1. Kroon LA. Drug interactions with smoking. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64(18):1917-21. DOI: 10.2146/ajhp060414. PubMed PMID: 17823102.

What are possible drug interactions in patients that consume alcohol?

  1. Cousins G, Galvin R, Flood M, Kennedy M-C, Motterlini N, Henman MC, et al. Potential for alcohol and drug interactions in older adults: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing. Bmc Geriatr. 2014;14:57. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-14-57. PubMed PMID: 24766969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4008399.

How do opioids and benzodiazepines interact? What is the clinical significance of the combination?

  1. Jones JD, Mogali S, Comer SD. Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 2012;125(1-2):8-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.004. PubMed PMID: 22857878.
  2. McCance-Katz EF, Sullivan LE, Nallani S. Drug interactions of clinical importance among the opioids, methadone and buprenorphine, and other frequently prescribed medications: a review. Am J Addict. 2010;19(1):4-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2009.00005.x. PubMed PMID: 20132117; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3334287.

How do drugs of abuse interact with anti-retroviral therapies?

  1. Kumar S, Rao PSS, Earla R, Kumar A. Drug-drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015;11(3):343-55. DOI: 10.1517/17425255.2015.996546. PubMed PMID: 25539046; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4428551.

How does synthetic cannabis interact with medications?

  1. Arellano AL, Papaseit E, Romaguera A, Torrens M, Farré M. Neuropsychiatric and General Interactions of Natural and Synthetic Cannabinoids with Drugs of Abuse and Medicines. CNSNDDT. 2017;16(5):554-566. DOI: 10.2174/1871527316666170413104516. PubMed PMID: 28412920.
  2. Kong TY, Kim J-H, Kim DK, Lee HS. Synthetic cannabinoids are substrates and inhibitors of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes. Arch. Pharm. Res. 2018;41(7):691-710. DOI: 10.1007/s12272-018-1055-x. PubMed PMID: 30039377.