Long term antipsychotic treatment does not alter metabolite concentrations in rat striatum: an in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

Lindquist DM, Dunn RS, Cecil KM. Long term antipsychotic treatment does not alter metabolite concentrations in rat striatum: an in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Schizophrenia Res. 2011;128(1-3):83-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.02.019. PubMed PMID: 21429713; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3085587.

Effectiveness of maintenance treatments with atypical and typical antipsychotics in stable schizophrenia with early stage: 1-year naturalistic study.

Guo X, Fang M, Zhai J, Wang B, Wang C, Hu B, et al. Effectiveness of maintenance treatments with atypical and typical antipsychotics in stable schizophrenia with early stage: 1-year naturalistic study. Psychopharmacology. 2011;216(4):475-84. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2242-3. PubMed PMID: 21369751.

Clozapine increases reward evaluation but not overall ingestive behaviour in rats licking for sucrose.

Galistu A, Modde C, Pireddu MC, Franconi F, Serra G, D'Aquila PS. Clozapine increases reward evaluation but not overall ingestive behaviour in rats licking for sucrose. Psychopharmacology. 2011;216(3):411-20. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2237-0. PubMed PMID: 21360098.

Clinical course and analysis of ten fatal cases of clozapine-induced myocarditis and comparison with 66 surviving cases.

Ronaldson KJ, Fitzgerald PB, Taylor AJ, Topliss DJ, McNeil JJ. Clinical course and analysis of ten fatal cases of clozapine-induced myocarditis and comparison with 66 surviving cases. Schizophrenia Res. 2011;128(1-3):161-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.01.017. PubMed PMID: 21320766.

Effect of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Muscatello MRA, Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Micò U, Scimeca G, Di Nardo F, et al.. Effect of aripiprazole augmentation of clozapine in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Schizophrenia Res. 2011;127(1-3):93-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.12.011. PubMed PMID: 21262565.

Iloperidone in the Treatment of Seriously Mentally Ill Patients with Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: A Case Series

Iloperidone (Fanapt®) is a new antipsychotic approved for the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Until now, there are no reports of the use of iloperidone in treatment-refractory psychotic patients. This report summarized our first seven severely mentally ill patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder treated with iloperidone.

Assessment of Prophylactic Clozapine Levels in Stable Outpatients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

While schizophrenia affects an estimated 1% of the population, its treatment consumes approximately 2.5% of annual health care expenditures. Hospitalization of schizophrenic patients is often due to ineffectiveness of or noncompliance with pharmacological treatment. Clozapine is generally considered the most effective antipsychotic medication, but its use is limited due to the potential for serious side effects such as agranulocytosis, weight gain, seizures, and metabolic disturbances. The metabolism of clozapine is affected by individual patient factors, including ethnicity, smoking, and concomitant medications that induce or inhibit cytochrome P450 1A2. Widely variable plasma clozapine concentrations may lead to treatment failure or toxicity. These complications may be avoided if validated clozapine plasma concentrations were established and implemented in the stable outpatient population. This study will compare clozapine blood levels attained in a stable, outpatient population to individual response measured by a validated psychiatric rating scale.

Antipsychotic Treatment and Tobacco Craving in People With Schizophrenia

Nicotine dependence is high in people with schizophrenia and about three times more prevalent than the general population. Nicotine mediates reinforcement from smoking via dopamine which may impact nicotine craving. Antipsychotics block dopamine, thereby potentially affecting craving and/or smoking behavior.

The presynaptic component of the serotonergic system is required for clozapine's efficacy.

Yadav PN, Abbas AI, Farrell MS, Setola V, Sciaky N, Huang X-P, et al. The presynaptic component of the serotonergic system is required for clozapine's efficacy. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(3):638-51. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2010.195. PubMed PMID: 21048700; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3055689.